Detail View: David Rumsey Historical Map Collection: Carte coton...1858 et 1861

Minard, Charles Joseph, 1781-1870
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Carte coton...1858 et 1861
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Separate Map
Statistical Diagram
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Folds into covers with label "1858-1861 Importation du Coton." Robinson, no.30. Signed by Minard. "The map entitled 'Carte... des quantités de coton en laine importés en Europe en 1858 et 1861' shows two flow-maps of the Atlantic trade in wool and cotton, three years apart. The time period covers the beginning of the American Civil War, which was sparked by the slavery policies of the Lincoln presidency. By January 1861, seven of the southern states had seceded to form the Confederacy. The war between the Confederacy and the states who remained in the Union lasted until 1865, and had a devastating effect on American exports. The seven separatist states are marked on both maps. A line graph in the upper right corner shows the yearly export amounts of wool and cotton for America (blue). There is a sharp drop in exports from 1860, when the issues provoking the Civil War came to prominence. Comparing the two maps gives an even clearer picture of the change; by 1861 the amount of cotton and wool imported into Britain from the East Indies (yellow) had almost tripled, whereas the amount imported from America (blue) had only risen by a paltry 16,000 tons. Britain was then re-exporting the excess to other European countries (pink), at a rate three times higher than before the start of the Civil War." (Crouch).
Arthur H. Robinson (1967), 'The Thematic Maps of Charles Joseph Minard', Imago Mundi, Vol. 21, (1967), pp. 95-108
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U.S. Civil War
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Full Title: 
Carte figurative et approximative des quantités de coton en laine importés en Europe en 1858 et 1861 [Quantities of cotton and wool imported into Europe in 1858 and 1861].
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Minard, Charles Joseph, 1781-1870
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Pub Title: 
Carte figurative et approximative des quantités de coton en laine importés en Europe en 1858 et 1861 [Quantities of cotton and wool imported into Europe in 1858 and 1861].
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See the complete portfolio of Minard's maps at the Bibliotheque Ecole des Ponts et Chaussees See the general listing of Minard's works at the same source See also RJ Andrews' catalog of Minard's maps with links to images
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"Charles Joseph Minard (1781-1870) was "a true pioneer in thematic cartography and in statistical graphics" (Friendly). He began as a civil engineer, and by 1810 was working on behalf of the French government in Antwerp and Vlissingen. Minard went on to have a long and productive career, working on projects throughout Europe, and was named Superintendent of the School of Bridges and Roads in France in 1830. Six years later, he became Inspector of the Corps of Bridges. In 1851, he took mandatory retirement, although still working in an advisory capacity, and undertook private research. This is when his cartographical career began in earnest. He created 56 statistical maps over his lifetime, the most famous of which was the 'Carte figurative des pertes successives en hommes de l'Armée Française dans la campagne de Russie 1812-1813', showing the losses suffered by Napoleon's army during his failed invasion of Russia. Minard's genius lay in his realization that maps could provide visually clear renditions of complicated statistics. He wrote that the aim of his work was not to convey statistical results, but to show the relations between them, which would otherwise have to be worked out by the reader. He would often alter geographical reality on a map in order to make a diagram clearer, and so added the term 'approximative' to the title of his works to explain his decision. He was possibly the first to use the flow-map technique (his writing indicates that he believed he had invented it) and he was certainly the first to use pie charts on a map. The importance of Minard's work was quickly recognized by the French government. He was awarded the Legion d'Honneur, and throughout the 1850s all Ministers of Public Works in France had their portrait painted with a Minard chart in the background. In 1861, his work was presented to Napoleon III. Minard's maps were not widely known in his lifetime outside of the intelligentsia and upper levels of government, suggesting that he published them privately (Robinson)." (Crouch). This map is part of a set of 15 Minard maps - for the complete set see Pub List No.'s 10132.000 through 10146.000
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Separate Map
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Minard, Charles Joseph, 1781-1870